Monday, August 24, 2020
The significant difficulties for China, Why the past fruitful fare drove development model can't proceed - Term Paper Example Over a time of three decades, China has built up a market-based economy be that as it may, nonetheless, the foundation of market establishments stays incomplete (Naughton, 2007). The fare drove development was extraordinarily helped by directing reserve funds and work into huge scope physical and human work ventures. Further, the move to business sectors from arranging realized proficiency in the designation of assets while exploiting the modern experience gained during the communist period. As per Norton (2007), the present financial period has abused a long business enterprise and commercialization history both inside and outside the nation, which has facilitated access to capital and investment funds. With an accentuation on economy, this paper will talk about the significant difficulties that China is confronting and the reasons why its past triumphs dependent on development that was energized by sends out can't proceed. It will additionally recommend how the Chinese economy shou ld additionally be changed. The key concern confronting ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is the impossibility of the continuation of the conditions that encouraged the 7% monetary development in the previous 30 years, put something aside for the gradually yet consistently improving human capital (Garnaut and Song, 2005). In any case, the improving human capital might be invalidated by the quickly maturing experts that will put a strain on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s limit of medicinal services and annuities. ... In spite of the fact that the changeover has brought about improved ways of life, it has additionally prompted higher monetary hazard and vulnerability. This is showed by the intensifying dispersion of salary, joblessness, temperamental instruction, inadequate foundation and a seriously organized medical coverage structure (Zhang, 2008). The economy is in a condition of unevenness in light of overdependence on sends out, with moderately low portions of GDP acknowledged from household utilization in contrast with the status in dominant part of the created nations. This has prompted a ceaseless overcapacity, disturbing the exchange awkwardness among China and its huge accomplices in exchange, the aftereffect of which has been intermittent misgiving in common associations with exchanging accomplices and, all the more fundamentally, the United States (Liu, 2007). From the financial perspective, China might be supposed to be its very own survivor achievement (Garnaut and Song, 2005). None of its exchanging accomplices is getting a charge out of the exponential development rates that China has encountered, and their imports from China can't continue as before, or if nothing else in a way that can lead China to proceeded with strength. Seen in another manner, the exchanging accomplices may keep up their degree of imports, at the same time, from the viewpoint of China, they would not support the development rates they have seen in past years. In the wake of experiencing a time of humble month to month gains, the nation was looked by startling drops in September in sends out (Silk, 2013). This event recharged the signs of feeble focuses inside the developing markets that China has been exchanging with as critical accomplices. All the more significantly, it flags the limitations of substantial reliance on more fare development to
Saturday, August 22, 2020
We are solid Catholic devotees, and we know there is metal to this world than exactly what our eyes can retain. Much like the Agenda, I accept that there are individuals who have endowments given to them during childbirth too. The Agenda individuals realize that once they are conceived, they are given the endowment of black magic. We will compose a custom article test on Azande or on the other hand any comparable theme just for you Request Now Much the same as certain individuals In my way of life can see, talk, and hear the individuals who are done living. We both put stock In the angles and prowls about death. 2. Consider the manners by which individuals from your general public are constrained to carry on in socially satisfactory manners. How do these contrast from each other? The manner in which I see this is in our general public we are completely blended and in various zones. We are totally compelled to find out about regard, and participation towards each other. In our general public people can assume similar jobs, have same hard working attitude, and kids. We are such an assorted nation others may consider this to be a disrespect or Just straight up Ã¢â¬Å"unusualÃ¢â¬ . There could even be the individuals who see our way of life as an opportunity. The Agenda individuals help me as to remember being Ã¢â¬Å"old-fashionedÃ¢â¬ . Only for the way that the men, assume the large job in the family. They are the pioneers fundamentally the Ã¢â¬Å"big man on ampÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ yet for the family. Presently the ladies remain by their men and deal with their youngsters. In their locale they all stay together and wed inside them. They arenÃ¢â¬â¢t so assorted like us; they even have sites so they could remain associated and together. In our general public we do anything we desire essentially, we truly don't have a lot to follow however government approaches. Plan individuals have rules and norms they should be complied. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t care and they regard their everyday environments. 3. Do you utilize rationale that Is comparative or diverse when clarify negative contemplations? I am the sort of individual who consistently thinks contrarily, in any event, when the result ends up being a positive one, however I do accept that a few Incidents are Just mishaps. Musings are continually drawing in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, in any event, when nothing terrible Negative either could have ventured wrong or you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been focusing. Essentially, Just in light of the fact that that happened doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it was arranged or plotted against you. The Agenda accept that the easiest injury is never Just a fortuitous event or a mishap, either its black magic or somebody is against you. I can comprehend their perspective, yet at times misfortune Just occurs throughout everyday life. Like say for the individuals who are Ã¢â¬Å"accident proneÃ¢â¬ for moment, they are Just individuals who canÃ¢â¬â¢t help however get harmed in their own grand manners. It isn't that they have adversaries; they are simply not the most cautious individuals on the planet. I do think negative a great deal, however in my standing point in some cases nature Just follows through to its logical end and things occur without our control. IÃ¢â¬â¢m presumably the most contrary individual out there, yet I do consider the expression Ã¢â¬Å"accidents happenÃ¢â¬ . . Is there a few diverse Ã¢â¬Å"System of logicÃ¢â¬ that might be conjured, contingent on the conditions? On the off chance that you are relying upon the circumstance, at that point yes there are various rationales. Mishaps do occur, however from another ethical they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t constantly an irregular demonstration of graciousne ss. This is a pitiless world, and nobody is going to hold your hand. You will consistently have someone who despises, begrudges you, or Just needs you gone. At that point this might occur, a few people in this world will go past the condition to arrive way. Motivation put stock in assaulting their adversary with the forces and enchantment f black magic. When somebody gets harmed or has a clinical issue weÃ¢â¬â¢d all prefer to think it was not deliberate, isn't that so? That isnÃ¢â¬â¢t consistently the case now. At the point when demise happens in our general public, it is typically endeavor of homicide, genuine homicide, or self destruction. Getting injured now or harming others isnÃ¢â¬â¢t constantly a demonstration of benevolence, consequently the Agenda individuals do have a moment that they are feeling deceived by each other. Everybody has various techniques for response with regards to their adversaries, however they are not constantly a Ã¢â¬Å"wiseÃ¢â¬ decision. Step by step instructions to refer to Azande, Papers
Friday, July 24, 2020
Things to Start Doing If You Have Social Anxiety Social Anxiety Disorder Coping Print Social Anxiety Activities to Get Better By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 14, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on September 28, 2019 Social Anxiety Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Social anxiety activities are those things you can do to challenge your anxiety. ?Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is estimated to affect around 12% of the population at some point in their lives ?? People with SAD suffer in all areas of their lives; they have trouble making friends and maintaining friendships, finding life partners, finding work and building a career, and even getting through the mundane aspects of daily life. Although SAD can be seriously debilitating, and the best treatment approach involves combining cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and/or medication (such as SSRIs), there is much that can be done through self-help to overcome social anxiety.?? The 8 Best Online Therapy Programs Self-help strategies often draw on the effective components of other more traditional treatment approaches. For example, self-help might incorporate aspects of relaxation, thought reprogramming, and exposure to feared situations. If you suffer from mild to moderate social anxiety, you might just feel like you are in a rut most of the time. What is the best way to get out of a rut? Do something. Verywell / Brianna Gilmartin ?Get Yourself Out There Although it can be tempting to avoid social and performance situations if you suffer from social anxiety disorder (SAD), it is important to get yourself out there. That means accepting invitations to go places and do things that make you uncomfortable. At the same time, you need to prepare yourself to properly handle being out there. Get Help Dont wait until tomorrow or next week or the next time you are in crisis. Make an appointment today to see someone. If you are too embarrassed to call your doctor, consider contacting a mental health helpline such as the one offered by the National Alliance on Mental Illness to get you started. You might find talking to an anonymous stranger less intimidating and it could eventually lead to receiving the help you need. Just take the first step. Improve Your Health Do everything in your power to ensure that poor physical health is not contributing to your problems with anxiety. Exercise on a regular basis (including cardiovascular exercise and weight training) and eat a healthy, balanced diet. Do your best to stay away from alcohol.?? Drink chamomile tea to soothe your nerves. If you do not already exercise regularly, start planning a program for yourself today. Exercise not only increases feelings of well-being and reduces anxiety,?? but if done in the company of others it offers the chance to build up your social skills in a relatively non-threatening environment. ?If you dont have the resources or the time to join a gym or participate in regular exercise classes, there is still lots that you can do. Consider taking up walking or running or practice yoga at home. Keep a Journal Keep a daily journal so that you can see how much you have improved. Writing about your thoughts and experiences will also help you recognize when you are falling back into old habits and negative-thinking patterns.?? Write Down Your Goals It isnt enough to have vague goals about what you want to achieve. Whether you want to overcome symptoms of social anxiety or become an Academy Award-winning actress, it is important to put your goals down on paper. This makes them real and measurable. Part of goal setting involves deciding where you want to end up, but it also involves learning and setting a benchmark of where you are now. One way to do this is by taking some self-assessment quizzes to see how you score in terms of social anxiety (the Liebowitz scale is a good one to try). Then down the road, after you have started to get yourself out of the rut, you can take the quiz again and see if your scores have improved. Remember not to compare yourself to others in terms of social success; compare yourself to how you were doing one week, one month, or one year ago. Congratulate Yourself You might not be a confident public speaker, but there are a lot of things in your life to be proud of. Recognize that you face more challenges than others and that you should feel good about the small accomplishments in your life. Some days you can even feel proud that you made it out of the house. Build on small achievements and you will feel better about yourself. Become Your Own Best Advocate Nobody else is going to look out for you the way you can look out for yourself. Gather knowledge about SAD so that you can make better decisions. Ask for accommodations at work and school if you feel they will help you. Guide others toward better understanding of the struggles you face. Take time out at parties if you feel the need. Nobody else knows what it is like to be you. Practice Social Skills You may not have been born with the gift of gab, but you can improve on the skills that you have.?? Practice how to make introductions, make better eye contact, remember names and learn how to give compliments. If you want to improve your public-speaking skills, join a group like Toastmasters International. Practice Being Assertive Social anxiety and lack of assertiveness tend to go hand-in-hand.?? The problem with not being assertive is that you dont give other people the chance to meet your needs. Assertiveness is not about aggressively going after what you want; it is being clear about what you need from others in order to be satisfied. Share Your Experiences Whether you have conquered social anxiety or you are right in the midst of it, your experiences are valuable and should be shared with others. Sharing your story will help others realize that they are not alone, and will also bring more awareness to a problem that is mostly kept behind closed doors. Start Saying Yes Perhaps you have gotten into a rut of saying No to everything. Instead, why not start saying Yes? If you are invited to do something social, try to make a habit out of accepting the invitation. Although you might feel anxious at first, over time the more you do, the less fearful you will become. The next time an invitation crosses your desk or someone at work asks you to join the group for a coffee break, make an effort to go. Start Saying No Are you a pushover? Do others make unrealistic demands on your time or treat you poorly, but you feel powerless to stand up for yourself? This is a time to learn how better to say No and how to be more assertive. You dont have to go along with everything that everyone wants, and if you dont clearly communicate what you want and need, others are left guessing what you are thinking or how you feel. Join a Support Group Whether you join a brick-and-mortar support group or an online group, you will find the company of others who understand what you are going through comforting.?? Make the most of your time with the group; be encouraging and look for ways to help others. Your acts of kindness will be paid back to you. Say I Am Nervous Everyone who speaks in public gets a little nervous. One of the best antidotes for anxiety about public speaking is to simply acknowledge how you are feeling before you begin. In many settings it is completely acceptable to start off your speech with a laugh and a comment such as Forgive me if I stumble over my words, you see I just get a little nervous speaking in public. Immediately you are helping yourself out of the rut of slipping into a panic attack while speaking. Others will also be more forgiving than you might think. Buy Yourself a New Outfit Retail therapy is obviously no cure for social anxiety, but sometimes clothing really can make you feel like a new person with a new attitude. Try to get yourself out of a rut by purchasing something outside your comfort zone. Choose a unique accent piece both to try something new and to give others a conversation starter when they first meet you. Cherish Being Alone Some people with SAD are also natural introverts; this means that they recharge their emotional batteries by spending time alone instead of in the company of others. You dont have to become a social butterfly to overcome social anxiety; be comfortable being who you are. If that involves choosing to time alone to gather your thoughts (rather than because of fear), there is nothing wrong with making that choice. Go Somewhere New Do you follow the same routine every week? Visit the same grocery store, same gas station, eat at the same restaurant, or walk the same block? Try breaking out of your routine by going somewhere new. Not only will your challenge your social anxiety about new surroundings, but you might discover you have been missing out on some great aspect of your neighborhood. Join Toastmasters If you have a significant fear of public speaking, make a point of joining Toastmasters International... today! This group has helped people around the globe improve public speaking skills and overcome speech anxiety. Best of all, the group provides feedback for each other, so it is a great chance to meet people and make new friends. Stop Trying to Be Perfect Perfectionism and social anxiety often go hand in hand.?? Everything that you say and everything you do doesnt have to be perfect. Make a point of being imperfect and taking chances for a day. Take a Vacation As simple as it sounds, sometimes we all just need a change of scenery. If you are really stuck in a socially anxious mindset, try taking off for a weekend to a new locale, even if it is a solo trip. Soak up some of the local cultures, and immerse yourself in a different pace. Try on a different way of looking at yourself. You are more than your social anxiety. It doesnt define who you are. Read a Book Choose either a motivational story or a self-help book and set about a course of change based on what you read. Read everything you can get your hands on about social anxiety and how to improve. Read true stories about other people who have been there and done that. Read motivational books about life in general. Educating yourself will never hurt you, and it might give you the insight or inspiration that you need to make changes in your life.?? ?Do Something Exciting Try something totally off-the-wall like a hot air balloon ride or a zip-line adventure. Lose yourself in an exciting adventure and forget about your social anxiety. Best of all, the next time someone asks you what you do for fun, you will have a great story to tell. Replace Negativity with Positivity Being positive is contagious. If you have a habit of seeing the world through a negative lens (which most people with SAD tend to do), try becoming an optimist, if only for a day at first. Replace any negative thoughts with more positive alternatives.?? See if that doesnt help you start to climb out of your rut. How to Change Your Negative Thought Patterns Surround Yourself With Positive People If at all possible, try to spend more time with positive people; people who love you, believe in you, and see the beauty in who you are despite your social anxiety. Spending time with these people will make you feel good and help you to weather any rough times as you try to make changes in your life. Be Accountable to Someone You may stay in your rut forever if nobody knows you are trying to move past your social anxiety and you are not accountable to anyone. Choose someone you trust, it could even be an online friend, and tell them about your plans to make changes in your life. This works very much like having an exercise partner; the other person keeps you honest and keeps you from giving up when the road seems to hard and long. Sign Up for a Cause Join a cause that you believe in and that will get you out into the community and meet new people. Help animals find adoptive homes, walk for charity or fight third world hunger. Find a purpose beyond yourself and your space in the world, and some of the mundane problems of the day might seem just that. Start Staying Hi to the Neighbor Do you scurry for your door every time the neighbor appears? Next time try to make a concerted effort to say hello, wave and be friendly. Although this might feel out of character and anxiety-provoking at first, over time this new habit will become second nature.?? If you are feeling really bold, try a behavioral experiment: Invite your neighbor over for coffee at a time when she is clearly busy. Seek out rejection and learn that it is not so bad! At some point down the road, you might even find you have made a friend out of a neighbor. How to Talk to Your Neighbors Strike Up a Conversation Do you shy away from talking to strangers? Do you avoid eye contact at the grocery store? Do you look at your feet in the elevator? Today, instead of doing what you normally do in those situations, try doing the opposite. Engage the other person in a bit of small talk, just for the sake of getting the practice and learning not to be afraid.?? Give a Great Handshake Are you known for limp noodle handshakes? Surprise everyone you meet with a firm solid handshake and great eye contact. This is an easy social skill to learn that can help you make the best first impression. Take a Class Take a class in something that interests you: pottery, cooking, skiing, golf... anything that gets you out meeting people and learning a new skill will do the trick. Joining a class will give you the opportunity to build confidence, expose yourself to social situations, and potentially make new friends. Stop Complaining and Blaming Perhaps you were dealt a bad hand in life. Maybe you had a controlling mother or a father who put you down. Although these life experiences may have contributed to your social anxiety, you dont need to let them continue to influence the course of your life. Start taking responsibility for your actions and behavior. Hire a Life Coach If traditional treatment isnt an option for you, for whatever reason, consider instead investing in some sessions with a life coach. Coaches can help you identify your goals and obstacles to success. Although they will not be able to specifically help you overcome social anxiety, life coaches can help steer you down a more positive path of daily living.?? Start Paying Attention Chances are your thoughts and feelings have become so automatic you dont even realize what runs through your head on a daily basis.?? Slow down, take the time to focus on the present, and examine the thoughts that pass through your mind; especially the negative ones. If you need to, keep a journal to really get a handle on your daily thought patterns. Make Changes for Yourself, Not Others Be careful about your reasons for wanting to change. If daily life is painful, that is a reason to get a handle on social anxiety. However, if you just want to impress your friends on Facebook or in real life with your social skills and popularity, the changes you make wont last. Stop Putting Things Off Perhaps you envision some point in the future when you can conquer your fears. Maybe when you are older, have more money to pay for therapy, or when you are feeling stronger. The reality is that there is never a better time than now. Stop procrastinating and start your journey of change today. Reward Yourself It isnt going to be much fun getting out of a rut if you never reward yourself for your efforts. Choose something that you know will be rewarding for you, and indulge when you have made changes in your life; be it daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. Ideas might include a special meal, new novel, or even a vacation you have dreamt of. Work With Your Strengths In order to get yourself out of a social anxiety rut, you dont need to have an end goal of becoming a stand-up comedian or accomplished concert pianist. If you love books, maybe joining a book club or even leading a book club would be your thing. Think about your interests and talents, and how you can bring more sociability into those areas in your life. Help Someone Else One of the best ways to feel better about yourself is to help someone else. Although helping others can be difficult when you have social anxiety, there are many outside-the-box ways that you can help people. Consider joining a social anxiety forum and offering support to someone going through a rough time. Think about someone who might be alone or feeling lonely and send them a card, note or email to brighten their day. Do a little something for someone else every day and you will soon start feeling better about yourself and life in general. Make One Little Change Sometimes we can get caught up thinking that the changes that we need to make to get out of a rut need to be big. Make one little change and see if it has ripple effects in your life. The change could be as small as watching the news every evening to keep up on current events and have more to say during small talk. Try an Herbal Supplement If you really feel like trying something medicinal, but arent yet ready to broach the topic of medication with your doctor or psychiatrist, consider trying an herbal supplement from your drug store. There are many herbal supplements that are used in managing anxiety;?? however, it is important to know that herbal supplements are not regulated by the United States Food Drug Administration the same way that traditional medications are evaluated. Be sure to read about any cautions, warnings or medication interactions before taking an herbal supplement. Tell Someone One of the hardest parts about having social anxiety is that it is usually a very private battle that is fought.?? Perhaps you have never talked to anyone about your fears. If you really want to get out of a rut, you need to open up to at least one person. Only you know who that person should be; perhaps you would feel more comfortable talking to someone who doesnt know you personally (such as a doctor, teacher, or clergy person) or maybe a friend or family member would be the right choice. The minute you start opening up about how you feel, the less scary your problems will seem. Challenge Yourself Are you working at a job that doesnt make use of your skills and talents? Have you always taken the safe route because of your social anxiety? Try breaking out of a rut by leaving your safe zone and taking on those challenges that help you grow as a person. Accept the promotion at work, go back to school for a new career, or start your own business. Follow your passion and your dreams and dont let social anxiety stand in your way. Work on a Friendship Everyone has the potential for one or more friendships in their life. Perhaps there is someone you know that has tried to get to know you better but you have stalled the friendship; its time to take the reins and work at turning that person into a friend. Although it might seem hard at first, over time you will be glad to see a familiar face at work, at the gym, or in your college class. Take the initiative and extend and an invitation to do something together; dont rely on the other person to always make the first move. Make It a Competition Do you have a competitive nature? If so, could you make a sport out of trying to overcome your social anxiety? If you clam up at dinner parties, try over-preparing with interesting stories to tell. Try to ask every person at least one question. Keep track of how many times you speak and give yourself points. Make it a game! Visualize What You Want What exactly do you want? If you havent defined this for yourself, then you dont know where you are headed or how to get there. Do you want more friends, a better job, or simply not to feel anxious all the time? Visualize having those things that you want; this will help motivate you to do what needs to be done to get out of a rut. How to Practice Guided Imagery Appreciate What You Have Though you may have been dealt a bad hand when it comes to having social anxiety, there is probably much in your life to be thankful for. Take the time to express gratitude for what you do have. Get Adequate Sleep Make sure you are getting enough sleep; lack of rest can cause you to feel less than your best and exacerbate anxiety.?? Laugh Sometimes people with social anxiety spend so much time worrying and fretting that they forget to laugh and have fun. When was the last time you watched a funny movie that made you laugh out loud? Who was the last person that made you chuckle? Try to bring more laughter into your life. If you arent having fun, what is the point? Stop Thinking Nothing Will Work for You The key to getting out of a rut is to act; not think about why things wont work. Try to make some of the changes on this list and observe the outcome. Never dismiss an idea because you think that it wont work for me.?? Avoid the Usual Temptations If you have a bad habit of wasting too much time on the internet or watching television instead of socializing, try cutting back or making it educational time in terms of learning about SAD and social skills. See how much time you gain to focus on overcoming your social anxiety and building your social skills. Stop Waiting to be Rescued If you think that your problem wont be solved until the magic bullet appears, then you will never get started making changes on your own. Take responsibility for the changes that you need to make, and realize that nobody else is going to take the reins. Talk to Someone Who Has Been There and Done That That person might be a friend in an online forum or someone you meet in a support group. The goal is to have someone to talk to who has been through social anxiety, knows what it feels like to be stuck, and knows what it takes to make it out to the other side.?? Spend Time in Nature Being outdoors has a natural calming effect.?? If you work indoors or spend most of your time indoors, try getting outside more often. Break up your routine with a walk through the park whenever you can. Start Eating Better If you suffer from social anxiety, make sure that you are eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugar?? and alcohol as much as possible. A poor diet can wreak havoc with your brain chemistry and leave you feeling sluggish and worn down. Too much caffeine and sugar can also increase feelings of anxiety. Read Inspirational Quotes Former anxiety sufferer Jamie Blyth included motivational quotes as part of his personalized self-improvement plan. Sign up for a motivational quote news feed on Facebook or visit a motivational blog daily. Watch Movies Watch movies with confident characters and practice behaving in the same manner. Many great performers have built confidence by watching and learning others who they wish to emulate. Seek Treatment Sometimes you just cant get yourself out of a rut; especially if it is more of a deep hole that you have dug yourself into. If this is you, and you are finding yourself completely overwhelmed by social anxiety, to the point that it is interfering significantly with your daily functioning, it is time to seek outside help.?? Your family doctor is a good place to start. Even though you might feel afraid to reach out and admit that you have a problem, you will be glad that you did. A Word From Verywell The bottom line when trying to break yourself free of a social anxiety rut is to remember that everything takes time. No matter what changes you make in your life, you will not go from socially anxious to social butterfly overnight. Be pleased with any small progress that you make; every journey begins with small steps and it is important for you to get started and not worry too much about your goal now. Focus on the journey and your actions will take you there.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3535 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? 1.0. Introduction Variability in foreign exchange (FX) rate has been one of the major economic and financial factors affecting cash flows and common stocks value. After the collapse of post-war Bretton Woods fixed exchange rates in the 1970s, the relative prices of currencies began to fluctuate. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Study On The Variability In Foreign Exchange Rate" essay for you Create order The rapid expansion in international trade and adoption of floating exchange rate regimes by many countries led to increase exchange rate volatility. As economic integration and globalization have been increasing year by year, exchange rate movements have become very important source of risk for financial firms as well as non-financial firms. In this context, it is very important to mention that virtually all existing empirical studies estimate currency exchange rate exposures on the basis of share prices. However, the assessment of cash flow and stock price exposures which will be studied in this research will represent a rational alternative to the analysis of stock price exposures. In fact, it is the impact of exchange rate risk on corporate cash flows rather than equity prices per se, that is emphasized in the theoretical literature on corporate risk management, either for tax reasons, managerial performance, bankruptcy, investment decisions or compensation purposes. Jacque (1996) points out that change in a companys earnings due to unexpected foreign currency exchange rate changes relatively to their domestic currency is considered as foreign exchange rate risks. Changes in exchange rates may affect firms profitability and value. Exchange rate changes can also impact on the level of competitiveness of the firms which are exposed to exchange rate risk, or affect the value of their net assets denominated in foreign currencies. Adler and Dumas (1984) show that even firms whose entire operations are domestic may have affects of exchange rates of foreign currencies, if their output and input prices are influenced by currency movements. Moreover, Eiteman et al. (2006) says that in general, firms are exposed to three types of foreign exchange risk: translation exposure, transaction exposure and economic exposure. Translation and transaction exposures are accounting based and defined in terms of the book values of assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency. In practice, economic exposure is computed as the net sensitivity of some aggregate measure of firm value to currency fluctuations. Economic exposure contains of the direct and indirect effects of currency fluctuations by focusing on the net sensitivity. At the corporate level, changes in exchange rates affect the firm value, because future cash flows of the firm will change with exchange rate fluctuations. In other words, exchange rate changes have important implications for financial decision-making and for firm profitability. It is widely believed that changing exchange rates affect the competitiveness of firms engaged in international competition. According to Luehrman (1991), a falling home currency promotes the competitiveness of firms in home country by allowing them to undercut prices charged for goods manufactured abroad. Many simple partial equilibrium models (e.g. Shapiro) predict an increase in the value of the home country firm in response to a real drop in the value of the home currency. Economic theory suggests that under a floating exchange rate regime, exchange rate appreciation reduces the competitiveness of export markets; it has a negative effect on the domestic stock market. Conversely, if the country is import denominated, exchange rate appreciation may have positive affect on the stock market by lowering input costs. Problem statement As economic integration and globalization have been increasing year by year, exchange rate movements have become very important source of risk for financial firms as well as non-financial firms. Also, the internationalization of capital markets has resulted in inflow of vast sums of funds between countries and in the cross listing of equities. This has therefore made investors and firms more interested in the volatility of exchange rate and its effect on stock price and stock market volatility. According to Yucel and Kurt (2003), floating exchange rate appreciation reduces the competitiveness of export markets; and has a negative effect on share prices as well as the domestic stock market. On the other hand, for import dominated country, it may have positive effect on the stock market by lowering input costs. Malaysia presents an example of an open economy which engages in international trade with several countries and hence susceptible to foreign exchange rate volatility. Malaysian exchange and trade system have been liberalized for many years. Malaysia now follows a floating exchange rate policy. Malaysian economy has been suffered from Asian financial crisis 1997 and World financial crisis 2008. As a result volatility in foreign exchange rate and deviation from purchasing power parity might become persistent in the economy. Most of the firms operating in Malaysia are affected in many ways from these economic conditions. The firms have faced higher business risk and foreign exchange risk. However, empirical evidence on the influence of foreign exchange market volatility on stock market is largely inconsistent. These have been in the contest of developed economies. Mishra (2004) found no theoretical consensus on the interaction between stock prices and exchange rate. However, Solnik (2000) argues that there is a negative correlation between stock market and local currency. The openness of a countrys economy is recognized as a cause of volatili ty of its market. Malaysia presents a classic example of an open economy which engages in international trade transaction. Moreover, with advert of globalization, developing economies are becoming more integrated into developed economies as the results of increasing flow of imports and exports. Malaysia is not an exception. A cursory examination of foreign exchange rate history in Malaysia shows some considerable level of volatility. Therefore, it would be interesting to explore the effect of its foreign exchange volatility on cash flows as well as stock prices of its non-financial companies. Again, much work on the effect of the exchange rate volatility in the developing country like Malaysia has not been done. Thus, for that reason the study intended look at the effect of foreign exchange exposure on companies cash flows and stock prices in Malaysia. Research objectives Objective of the current research is to determine whether cash flows and stock prices of companies are affected by exchange rate exposure. This research project attempts to assess the economic exposures of the firms chosen from the Bursa Malaysia Main market. The issues are important for investors as well as corporate risk management. To examine the relationship between cash flows of the companies and exchange rates; To examine the relationship between stock prices of the companies and exchange rates; To determine which currencies have major influence on the companies cash flows? To determine which currencies have major influence on the companies stock prices? Research questions The research aims to find answers to the following questions: Whether cash flows of the companies exposed to exchange rate risk? Whether stock prices of the companies exposed to exchange rate risk? Which currencies have major influence on the companies cash flows? Which currencies have major influence on the companies stock prices? Significance of the study The estimation of exchange rate exposure is a relatively new area in international finance. After 1973, managers and economists become more concerned about the exchange rate fluctuations on firms. Also, for the past decade, researchers have been empirically investigating the exchange rate exposure of the firms. Following Adler Dumas (1984) most of the research measures the exposure as the elasticity between change in firm value and exchange rate. Empirically, this exposure elasticity is obtained from a regression of stock returns on an exchange rate change (Bodnar Wong, 2000). In practice, there is little general agreement on the use of appropriate choice of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"aggregate measure. In this research project it is focused on the impact of economic exposure of Malaysian firms values. Corporate managers will also be interested in the exposures of corporate cash flow measures such as sales, operating cash flow and earnings for reasons of corporate planning and risk management. Scope of the study The current study one of the new studies in international finance and risk management. In general, the research will assess the economic exposures for the companies listed in Bursa Malaysia Main Market from the years 2000 to 2008. For the research, first, all sample companies stock returns will be regressed on exchange rate change and market return. In the second step, companies will be examined according to one specific character, which is export volume. LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction It is also noticeable whether the firms cash flows are sensitive to exchange rate movements. Perhaps we should also point out the fact that Grambovas and McLeay (2006) are convinced that empirical analysis confirm that currency fluctuations may affect firm values, especially with consideration to the influence of foreign exchange rate movements on the firms cash flows and their accounting earnings, and on their stock prices. Previous literature Miller Reuer (1998) conducted a study on the implications of differences in strategy and industry structure for firms economic exposures to foreign exchange rate movements. According to their results, 13-17 % of US manufacturing firms exposed for foreign exchange rate movements. Also they indicated that foreign direct investment reduces economic exposure to foreign exhange rate movements. Martin and Mauer suggest that economic exposure, which typically has a longer-term time dimension, encompasses the competitive and indirect effects of exchange rate risk. Many academics such as Hodder (1982), Marston (2001) Pringle (1995), Shapiro (1975) and von Ungern-Sternberg von Weizsacker (1990) argue that unlike transaction exposure, economic exposure can affect even domestic firms. Economic exposure arises from changes in the sales prices and volumes, and the cost of inputs of the firm and its competitors as a result of exchange rate changes. Miller Reuer (1998) and Sundaram Black (1 992) argued that geographically positioning production, sales, sourcing, and financing operations is effective for reducing economic exposure. Glaum, Brunner and Himmet (2000) examined the economic exposure of German corporations to change in DM/US dollar exchange rate. They found that German firms are significantly exposed to changes in DM/US dollar rate. Several studies focused on the some companies and they demonstrated that exporter firms stock values are more sensitive to change in foreign exchange rates (Mao and Kao, 1990; Bortov and Bodnar, 1992). The study by SÃÆ'Ã ¶hnke M. Bartram (2007) found significant exposure of several firms to at least one of the foreign exchange rates, and significant exposures found by them were more frequent at long-term horizons. They also argue that the impact of exchange rate risk on share prices and cash flows is similar and determined by a correlated set of economic factors. Moreover, Dominguez and Tesar (2006) found that exchan ge rate movements do matter for a significant fraction of firms, though which firms are affected and the direction of exposure depends on the specific exchange rate and varies over time, suggesting that firms dynamically adjust their behavior in response to exchange rate risk. Exposure is correlated with firm size, multinational status, foreign sales, international assets, and competitiveness and trade at the industry level. Martin and Mauer (2003) pointed out that cash flow effects are greater for long-term lags than for short-term lags in exchange rate movements. This result may occur because transaction exposure is easier to assess and hedge, whereas economic exposure is more difficult to recognize and hedge. While Bartram (2007) suggests significant exposure of several firms to at least one of the foreign exchange rates such as CAD, JPY and EUR, and significant exposures determined by Bartram (2007) were more frequent at long-term horizons. The percentage of firms observed fo r which stock price and earnings exposures were considerably different was relatively low, though it increased with time horizon. Finally, he was convinced that the impact of exchange rate risk on stock prices and cash flows is similar and determined by a related set of economic factors. Batram and Karolyi (2006) took a new look at the exposure puzzle by studying the potential impact of the introduction of the Euro on stock returns of 3,220 non-financial firms from 20 countries. Their findings suggest that the introduction of the Euro decreased foreign exchange rate exposure, but these changes are statistically and economically small. According to Tesar and Dominguez (2006), factors such as firm size, multinational status, foreign sales, international assets, and competitiveness and trade at the industry level may influence economic exposure of the companies. These factors may either increase the companies economic exposure or decrease. These factors influence on the companies economic exposure will depend on how significantly these factors are correlated with the companies cash flows and operations, and if there are significant correlation between them, we should also point out whether these significant correlations are positive or negative. Empirical analysis by Grambovas and McLeay (2006) confirmed that exchange rate fluctuations will affect firm values, especially with regard to the influence of exchange rate movements on the cash flows and accounting earnings of companies with international exposure, and on their stock prices. Recent studies by Priestley and Odegaard (2007) studied the exchange rate exposures by orthogonalizing the market returns with respect to changes in exchange rates and a set of macroeconomic factors. Their findings suggest that the extent of exposures is only fully exposed when it is subdivided the sample period into regimes and at the same time used an orthogonalized market portfolio in the regression. Batram and Karoly i (2006) studied the exposure puzzle by looking at the potential impact of the introduction of the Euro on stock returns of 3,220 non-financial firms from different 20 countries. It was found that the introduction of the Euro had decreased foreign exchange rate exposure, but the changes were statistically and economically very small. However, Bae, Kwon, and Li (2008) having studied the exchange rate exposure and risk premium by using data on American depositary receipts (ADR) of Australia, France, Japan and the U.K., found that changes in the exchange rates were negatively correlated with the underlying shares of ADRs, but they were positively correlated to ADR returns observed in the U.S. markets. Moreover, they discovered that U.S. and local investors require different risk premiums for exchange rate risks presented in ADR investments. Griffin and Stulz (2001) found weak evidence of statistically significant exchange rate exposures, and the economic significance of the estimate d exposures was low. A first main study of the foreign exchange exposure fact done by Jorion (1990) found a significant impact of foreign exchange rate risk on share prices for 5.2 percent of the analyzed 287 U.S. MNCs at the 5 percent level. Choi and Prasad 1995 developed a model and examined the exchange rate sensitivity of 409 US multinational firms. Their findings indicated that change in exchange rate affected firm value. They found that 60 percent of firms had significant exchange rate exposure. In their study, Choi and Prasad (1995) found that 14.9 percent of the individual firms in the U.S. and 10 percent of the industry portfolios showed a significant exchange rate exposure at the 10 percent level, corroborating earlier findings. Domely and Sheehy (1996) found contemporaneous relation between the foreign exchange rate and the market value of large exporters in their study. Comparable results were found outside the United States by He and Ng (1998). For instance only s ome multinational companies in Japan (26.3% and 53.8% for different time periods) showed a significant exchange rate exposure with regard to a multilateral exchange rate index. Some studies look into the exposure of industry portfolios in several countries, there were found percentage yields of companies with significant exposure of 15% (United States), 4% (Japan) and 6% (United Kingdom) by Prasad and Rajan (1995), or 23% (United States), 21% (Canada) and 25% (Japan) by Bodnar and Gentry (1993) at the 5% level. Study by Bartram and Karolyi (2006) suggests that the FX rate exposure of non-financial firms is systematically linked to firm characteristics such as sales, the percentage of foreign sales in general and in Europe in particular, regional factors like geography, strength of currency and industry characteristics like competition, traded goods. Study examined by Allayannis and Ihrig (2001) speak about stock price exposure to international trade activities of U.S. industries, an d Bodnar et al. (2002) mention the significance of pass-through for exposure. Moreover, Starks and Wei (2004) found that the scale of exchange rate exposure is linked to proxies for probabilities of financial distress, product uniqueness and growth opportunities. However, the evidence of corporate foreign exchange rate exposures on a cash flow basis is very thin and inadequate to individual case studies. Garner and Shapiro (1984) investigated the foreign exchange rate exposure of Vulcan Materials Company by regressing changes of its quarterly operating cash flows on changes in the exchange rate of USD against GBP, and showed only small and statistically irrelevant foreign exchange rate exposures. Moreover, Oxelheim and Wihlborg (1995) use quarterly changes of total cash flow, commercial cash flow and sales revenue as dependent variables in the exposure analysis of Volvo Cars. Results by Oxelheim and Wihlborg (1995) indicate that the financial situation of the company reduces expo sures with regard to changes in the DEM/SEK exchange rate only to a modest degree. One more study by Bartram (2005) investigated the exposure of a large nonfinancial company based on proprietary internal as well as external capital markets data. Analysis by Bartram (2005) illustrated that the irrelevance of foreign exchange rate exposures of wide-ranging performance measures such as total cash flow and/or share price can be explained by hedging at the company level. Several studies focused on the some companies and they demonstrated that exporter firms stock values are more sensitive to change in foreign exchange rates (Mao and Kao, 1990; Bortov and Bodnar, 1992). In the most of the studies foreign exchange exposure was measured by regression analysis by using stock returns. Adler and Simon (1986) measured economic exposure as the slope of stock return on exchange rate change. Jorions (1990) model was established by adding the return of the market to control for market movemen ts. As Jorion, Booth and Rotenberg (1990) and Bodnar and Gentry (1993) examined economic exposure with market return, Miller and Reuner (2000) estimated economic exposure by multivariate modelling approach. They applied three-currency model, also add some specified macroeconomic variables such overall stock market return and interest rates. Flanney and James (1984) and Sweeney and Warga (1986) also used interest rates in their models. Doneely and Sheehy (1996) formed a porfolio with 39 companies, and examined the relationship between abnormal return on exporting firms portfolio and return on sterling. Khoo (1994) estimated mining companies economic exposure by using exchange rates, interest rates and price of oil. METHODOLOGY 3.0. Economic Exposure Measurement In order to measure Malaysian companies economic exposure I decided to follow Adler Simon (1986) model. I will measure economic exposure as the slope coefficient from a regression of stock returns on exchange rates. R it = ÃÅ½Ã ±i + ÃÅ½Ã ²i et + eit (1) ÃÅ½Ã ±i = constant term R it = Stock return for company i. et = Percentage change in exchange rate The coefficient ÃÅ½Ã ²i represents the sensitivity of a company is stock returns to exchange rate movements. In the model exchange rate quotation is direct quotation for Malaysia. In other words it is shown as MYR per one unit of the foreign currency. Positive value of ÃÅ½Ã ²i means that a depreciation of MYR corresponds to an increase in the value of company i. In the study, I will apply another model as Jorion approach. Jorian introduced another macroeconomic variable market return to control for market movements. To control for the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"common macroeconomic influences on total exposure elastici ties; most emprical studies include the return to a market portfolio with the exchange rate variable in their emprical models (Bodnar Wong, 2000). R it = ÃÅ½Ã ±i + ÃÅ½Ã ²1i et + ÃÅ½Ã ²2i Rmt + eit (2) ÃÅ½Ã ±i = constant term R it = Stock return for company i. et = Percentage change in exchange rate Rmt = Market return Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate models. Exchange rate movements can be measured in nominal or real terms. Real movements are defined as nominal movements adjusted for price level changes across countries. In some studies (Khoo, 1994; Bodnar and Wong, 2000), since real and nominal exchange rates are highly correlated both or one of them are used. Also in some studies trade weighed foreign exchange rate used. The exchange rate used in the study is real effective exchange rate, which is calculated by the Bank Negara (Malaysian Central Bank). The market index I employ will be FTSE Bursa Malaysia Mid 70 Index. In both mod el, it will be focused on individual firm value. Choi and Prasad (1995) state that examining exchange rate risk on aggregate level, on portfolio or market index, may not reveal the true exchange risk sensitivity of firm value. They claim that a firm level study is necessary to understand whether and why individual firms display varying sensitivity to exchange risk. I follow their approach in my analysis. 3.1. Data In order to examine Malaysian companies economic exposure, I constructed a sample. Sample companies stocks are publicly traded in FTSE Bursa Malaysia market. Only medium and big sized companies will be included. It will be used monthly data to estimate exchange rate sensitivity of the equity for the period from January 2000 to December 2008. Sample companies economic exposure will be examined in two steps. First, all sample companies stock returns will be regressed on exchange rate change and market return. In the second step, companies will be examined according to one specific character, which is export volume. The companies will be divided into two: exporter and non-exporter firms. It will be identified companies as an exporter company, if their foreign sales level is at least 20% of total sales in 2000. Individual stock returns for companies and FTSE Bursa Malaysia market return data will be collected from Bursa Malaysia sources and DataStream in UUM Library.
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Many people and events have helped bring Christianity to where it stands on a world scale. From Constantine to the roman crusades, Christianity has been evolved into one of the most paramount religions amongst the world today. While scholars debate the significance of the apostle PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s essentiality to Christianity, his noteworthy conversion, affiliation with the New Testament, and his missional mindset to evangelize, has had a considerable impression on christians for centuries. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion is pivotal because its the start of a transformation by the blood of Jesus Christ. The most influential portion of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life is his conversion from a persecuted to an evangelizing missionary. Paul, in his early life was remembered as religiously zealous, a merciless attacker, and an unyielding persecutor of the early church. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s in Acts chapter 9 that one begins to see just how ruthless Paul truly was, Ã¢â¬Å"Then Saul, still breathing threats and murder agai nst the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priestÃ¢â¬ ( New King James Version, Ac. 9.1) Before starting his travel, Paul had appealed for letters from the high priest to be sent to the synagogues in Damascus, requesting permission to imprison any Christians and to bring them back to Jerusalem. While on his way to Damascus, The Lord revealed Himself to Paul by a bright light. Paul response is crucial to the impact of this story, Ã¢â¬Å"So he, trembling and astonished, said, Ã¢â¬Å"Lord, what do You want me to do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ( Ac. 9.6). This
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Prufrock in Progress In A Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T. S. We will write a custom essay sample on Prufrock in Progress or any similar topic only for you Order Now Eliot, the main character, J. Alfred Prufrock battles with his identification in the world. T. S. Eliot comprises this character with traits that any human being can relate to, like fear and desire, while ironically depicting the character as a monster. This dueling monster lives within Prufrock. His desire to be accepted is bogged down by his unworthy self-esteem because of his lack of human relationships. Prufrock is a relatable character at best, but his self-image ruins his potential of connecting with other people. Some scholars believe that Prufrock is yearning for a long lost lover throughout his love song, but most evidence shows that he is in confliction with himself. Sistani writes Internal Anxieties and Conflicts in The LOVE SONG of J. ALFRED PRUFROCK and states that Prufrock is searching for a female lover in his expression of A Love Song. Sistani believes that J. Alfred is experiencing internal conflict about a love source and the need of comfort through a relationship with another woman. This interpretation poses irony continuously established throughout the poem because Prufrock does not even love himself. Sistani explains this insecurity by analyzing, Ã¢â¬Å"The article concludes that the male characterÃ¢â¬â¢s anxieties and conflicts are all the results of a past unsatisfactory mothering situation during his childhood,Ã¢â¬ (Sistani 478). This accusation is made from empty evidence that he desires a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s affection simply because he did not ever have it. This shows that J. Alfred Prufrock is in a habitual pattern of looking for love in all the wrong places. This interpretation by Sistani suggests that J. Alfred is speaking out in the desire for a loving partner. Sadly, PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his mother was disappointing and unfulfilling, therefore; he longs for someone to fill this place. Unfortunately, his lack of love and acceptance for himself disables him from relating and loving or even accepting others. Prufrock speaks of attending a party in which none of the women are good enough for him. He talks of their skirts hitting the floor and is infatuated by the women, but then ironically changes his viewpoint stating, And I have known the eyes already, known them all- The eyes that fix you in a ormulated phase, And when I am formulated, Sprawling on a pin, When I am pinned and wriggling on the wall, Then how should I begin? (Gwynn 623). Prufrock is explaining how women prevent him from being his true self. How the presence of them makes him feel like an insect being pinned on the wall; examined and preserved for humans to review and criticize. He deems the question of how to begin the expression of self when all women seem to want is a fixed idea of what a man should be, and that is not what J. Alfred is. Sistani evaluates Ã¢â¬Å"As a dependent character with not good enough mothering, Prufrock, like a child, is always willing to attach to an external loved object to achieve support and gratification. This need for attachment, to relate to the desired object is constant in Prufrock,Ã¢â¬ (Sistani 481). The poem in itself is a projection of how Prufrock views himself in comparison to how the reader or another person would view him. He projects only what he wants to be known, and leaves the rest as mystery. He purposefully reveals only what he is comfortable revealing, which will never lead to a sustainable relationship. Sistani concludes in her article, Ã¢â¬Å"Prufrock, with unresolved internal conflicts and anxieties still dreams of the women to attach to in order to fulfill the need for security and comfort,Ã¢â¬ (Sistani 481). This analysis believes that Prufrock himself feels he will not be able to fully express himself or be accepted without a female partner to lovingly accept him first. Unfortunately and ironically, the cycle persists because J. Alfred Prufrock does not ever have the epiphany that his entire misery is derived from his lack of confidence and love for himself, not from a lack of an external object or person. On the other hand, Human Voices in Silent Seas: A Reading on EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Love Song by Videnov uses a psychoanalytic approach to interpret the poem sang by J. Alfred Prufrock. She expands on his internal conflict of worthiness. Throughout the poem, Prufrock battles with the public and private sides of himself, and whether his thoughts and feelings are worthy of expression. Videnov explains this contrast in character by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Through jarring and easy transitions, Eliot contrasts the privacy of observation, insight, and dream with the social functioning of man, his appraisal by others, and his appraisal of himself as reflected in Ã¢â¬Å"the eyesÃ¢â¬ (55), thoughts, and words of others. Ã¢â¬ (Videnov, Valentin A. , 126). Videnov also analyzes the internal and external influences on J. Alfred PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche. The internal conflict that J. Alfred Prufrock exhibits throughout his love song is evident in his lack of self-confidence that leads to a feeling of disconnection with the human population. On one hand, Prufrock expresses the desire to cultivate a relationship with the external world, or a lover; yet on the other hand, he lets his insecurities define him and refuses to let himself engage in relationships with other people. Videnov explains this by describing PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s quest, Ã¢â¬Å"a quest for belonging, the examination of which could yield the message of the poem and the ultimately optimistic idea of love, as the title suggests, lurking behind the apparently tragic finale,Ã¢â¬ (Videnov, Valentin A. , 126). This statement establishes the irony in the desire to fulfill a journey of love, yet the inevitable misery Prufrock lives. The psychoanalytical dynamic of the ego and the true self is brought through in PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s character. T. S. Eliot repeatedly uses the pronouns, Ã¢â¬Å"you and I,Ã¢â¬ to describe this relationship of the ego and true self that Prufrock experiences. In the interpretation of Human Voices in Silent Seas: A Reading on EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Love Song, Videnov declares that these two entities are both representative of J. Alfred Prufrock himself. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬ represents the public face of Alfred J. Prufrock, the ego; and Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ represents the true self, the self that wants to be expressed but is prevented by PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s fear and insecurity. The opposing characters within Prufrock are further extended through the symbols of afternoon and evening. The imagery of afternoon is a representation of the light, the desire to express, and the need for connection. The evening represents a darkness, or comfort in the habitual pattern of the introverted mind and itÃ¢â¬â¢s self-destructive thoughts. Prufrock expresses his mental state when he says, Ã¢â¬Ëthe evening sleeps so peacefully. Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 624) In saying this, Prufrock is confirming within himself his comfort in the thought pattern of darkness. This leads him to question, Ã¢â¬Å"Would it have been worthwhile? Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 625), referring to the desired human connection he wants deep down. He truly believes that expression of the self and what he, as an individual has to say and share, are not going to be acc epted by others. Because of his fear of expression, the singer sings a song of love, but predominately and more ironically, a song of sadness. He has continued his pattern of introversion to such an extreme that he suffers from continual loneliness and disassociation. He proves this dissociation when he ends the poem with an insight of his fantasy world of mermaids where he retreats, when he is lonely. He looks upon the beautiful creatures in awe of their unifying world; yet wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even allow himself to be happy in his fantasy. He states this saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I do not think that they will sing to me,Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 625). This prevents him from dreaming himself to a healthy and loving relationship with himself, or anyone else. The lines Ã¢â¬Å"let us goÃ¢â¬ (Gwynn 622) used repeatedly are incredibly significant in this poem. UsÃ¢â¬ being the internal representation of the two conflicting sides that exist within Prufrock, as he yearns for release of this horrible cycle. What J. Alfred Prufrock does not understand is that every individual goes through this experience of questioning self worth. The underlying ironic theme of this poem is the relation of the reader to Prufrock himself. This is a cry of the main character to emerge from the inn er seclusion that he feels Ã¢â¬â a bonding of the afternoon and evening, the light and dark, inner and outer; a battle for the merging of duality to become a union. In Ã¢â¬Å"an overwhelming questionÃ¢â¬ in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by Xue, the main question that J. Alfred Prufrock is consistently in conflict with is whether or not to reveal his true self. PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s dueling character is established through the language of the poem. The internal conflict of Prufrock is addressed through repetitive language. Ã¢â¬Å"Prufrock is trying to express some deeper philosophical insight or disillusionment with society, but fears rejection. Ã¢â¬ (Xue 79). This fear causes his misery. PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s character is dominated by his uncertainty. The repetition of the lines, Ã¢â¬Å"there will be time,Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 622) pose irony in the poem. Prufrock is hopeful that he will be able to truly open up to the world in time, yet currently; he is perpetuating his cycle of loneliness by assuming that these desires will naturally unfold without regarded effort. Xue states this in saying, Ã¢â¬Å"The phrase Ã¢â¬ËThere will be time,Ã¢â¬â¢ repeated five times between lines 23 and 36, represents his hesitation and delay, in order to conceal his inner anxiety to the world,Ã¢â¬ (Xue 80). Essentially, Prufrock is only happy when he is alone with his thoughts because there are no external influences to judge him, yet this is also his cause of misery. Irony is also addressed in the Ã¢â¬Å"you and IÃ¢â¬ (Gwynn 621) characterization of Prufrock. Xue states the psychoanalytical interpretation of these pronouns, Ã¢â¬Å"In the poem, Prufrock is divided in two selves. One is persuading Prufrock to ask the Ã¢â¬Ëoverwhelming questionÃ¢â¬â¢, while the other is trying to prevent it,Ã¢â¬ (Xue 82). PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s soul really desires is the opposite of what it endures. At the root of his inability to express is his insecurity. Prufrock asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Do I dare Disturb the Universe? Ã¢â¬ (Gywnn 623) which is direct evidence that Prufrock has serious lack of self-confidence. J. Alfred directly articulates his anxiety about interaction by describing his unappealing physical attributes. He quivers in the thought, Ã¢â¬Å"With a bald spot in the middle of my hair- Ã¢â¬ËThey will say: Ã¢â¬ËHow his hair is growing thin! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 623). This statement is directly in connection with PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s physical insecurity, as well as his emotional insecurity because of his self-image. He uses this as an excuse for his anti-social behavior. He manifests this negative expression of self by bolding stating that if he were to share with another he would, Ã¢â¬Å"Die with a dying fall,Ã¢â¬ (Gywnn 623). This self-conscious attitude and fear of being mocked for this truth is the entire reason for J. Alfred PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s cyclical misery. He does not love himself; therefore, he cannot find or receive or the love of another. If he never learns to share his truth, he will never understand the beauty of human connection. The reality of how much Prufrock shares about himself is shown in the line, Ã¢â¬Å"To prepare to meet the faces that you meet; to murder to create,Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 622). The real self or Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ , as Videnov described in Human Voices in Silent Seas, is lost or Ã¢â¬Å"murderedÃ¢â¬ in society to Ã¢â¬Å"createÃ¢â¬ a false self or alter ego that functions in society. Another line stating this ego-oriented society and repeating the symbol of darkness reads, Ã¢â¬Å"the evening spread out against the sky,Ã¢â¬ (Gwynn 622) which refers to the apparent darkness of all humans all hidden under the masks of ego. Yet, if J. Alfred Prufrock understands this is a battle of every individual, he would be able to relate. In conclusion, it is J. Alfred PrufrockÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to live in misery. If he were open to see himself as a mirror image of others he would realize that every individual has insecurities of their own. Therefore, I agree with scholars Videnov and Xue in the psychoanalytical approach to J. Alfred Prufrock battling with his own ego versus the exploration and expression of his true self. If he deemed himself worthy of external expression then he would finally be able to share in love with himself and in turn, the rest of humanity. Works Cited Gwynn, R. S. Literature: A Pocket Anthology. 5th. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. , 2012. 21-625. Print. Videnov, Valentin A. Ã¢â¬Å"Human Voices In Silent Seas: A Reading Of EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Love Song. Ã¢â¬ Explicator 67. 2 (2009): 126-130. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. Sistani, Roohollah Reesi. Ã¢â¬Å"Internal Anxieties And Conflicts In Ã¢â¬Å"The LOVE SONG Of J. ALFRED PRUFROCK. Ã¢â¬ European Journal Of Social Science 17. 4 (2010): 478-489. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. Xue, Haiqin . Ã¢â¬Å"On Ã¢â¬Å"An Overwhelming Question'Ã¢â¬ In The Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock. Ã¢â¬ Canadian Social Science 5. 2 (2009): 79-82. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. How to cite Prufrock in Progress, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Mitigation Mitigation measures for all culturally significant locations found during an archaeological survey along the thirty-mile long proposed gas pipeline project in portions of Cleveland and McClain Counties in central Oklahoma should consider the degree of the impact, such as, no adverse affect, an adverse effect, or no effect. Other consideration, when considering mitigation techniques is how significant is the impact. Early notification of the State historic preservation officers is also important when determining historical site information and mitigation considerations. 1.Mitigation plans for location A (5 miles east of the westernmost point of the pipeline), which is already included in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) would consist of the following; alternate routes that would avoid the NRHP site completely, down scaling the proposed project size, or possibly abandoning the pipeline project completely. All these proposed mitigation techniques could be used which would spare the NRHP site any adverse effects. If the pipeline project must continue along the proposed route, alternative mitigation options could be used. Possibly repairing, rehabilitating or even restoring the site where any damage has occurred during the construction phase of the pipeline. If these mitigation would not be acceptable, then relocation of the site and the salvage of all sites' material if the site location had to be destroyed during construction. 2.Location B and C (8 miles and 9 miles, respectively, east of the westernmost point of the pipeline), were found eligible for NRHP protection. Mitigation measures at both location B and C would be the same as location A, since properties eligible for inclusions are covered under section 106 of The National Historic Preservation Act which is the same as properties already listed in the NRHP. 3.At location D (14 miles east of the westernmost point of the pipeline), an old building used as a farm house by early settler (about 100 years ago) in Cleveland county was found not eligible for the NRHP. Even thought the farmhouse was not eligible for the NRHP this does not necessarily mean that the farmhouse does not have historical value to the Locals. Consideration of Local concerns should be addressed when considering destruction of the farmhouse and possible mitigation measures. Other considerations include possible future eligibility to the NRHP, since the farmhouse is 100 years old. Possible mitigation measure could include relocation of the farmhouse or event an alternate route for the pipeline. Finally it may be necessary to demolish the farmhouse in the interest of the gas pipeline project. 4.At location E (23 miles east of the westernmost point of the pipeline) several grave sites were found: which are thought to be a part of a larger Indian burial ground. This location and all associated items would be protected by The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990. Mitigation recommendation for this site would be not to disturb the graves by rerouting the pipeline, or canceling the pipeline project. Disruption of the Indian burial ground as a mitigation alternative would be unlikely. Prearranged plans should be made for any additional historic properties found during the construction phase of the thirty-mile long pipeline. The plans should be included in any documentation during the assessment and consultation steps of the Section 106 process. It may be necessary to develop agreements or Memoranda of Understanding with the state and local archaeological agencies just in case a site is discovered during the construction phase. Care should be taken not to divulge any information to the public until the historical site is protected from thieves and from people that could damage the site.